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Mindfulness, also sometimes referred to as “flexible awareness”, is a mental practice and a state of awareness that involves intentionally paying attention to the present moment without judgment. It is about being fully engaged in the here and now, acknowledging and accepting one's thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations, and the surrounding environment as they arise, without trying to change or react to them.

Key characteristics of mindfulness include:


  • Present Moment Awareness: Mindfulness involves focusing on the present moment, recognizing that the past is already gone and the future is yet to come. By being fully present, individuals can better appreciate their experiences and reduce the tendency to ruminate about the past or worry about the future.

  • Non-Judgmental Awareness: Practicing mindfulness entails observing thoughts, emotions, and sensations without labeling them as good or bad. It's about acknowledging these experiences with an attitude of acceptance and compassion, rather than getting caught up in self-criticism or self-judgment.


  • Acceptance: Mindfulness involves accepting things as they are, even if they are uncomfortable or challenging. Rather than trying to change or suppress difficult experiences, mindfulness encourages individuals to make space for them and allow them to come and go naturally.

  • Openness: Mindfulness fosters an attitude of openness and curiosity. It's about being receptive to whatever arises in the present moment, including both pleasant and unpleasant experiences, with an attitude of interest and exploration.

  • Shifting Attention: While being mindful, or being “flexibly aware”, our minds may pull us away from what we are noticing in the present. Flexible awareness allows individuals to shift their attention intentionally and skillfully. This means choosing where to direct their focus and learning to gently redirect their attention when the mind wanders.

Mindfulness is a core component of various mindfulness-based interventions, such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). By cultivating mindfulness and “flexible awareness”, individuals can flexibly respond to stress, reduce reactivity, and respond more skillfully to life's challenges. It also contributes to enhanced emotional regulation, improved decision-making, and a greater sense of well-being.

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